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Though it sounds too good to be true, you can Corner, a practitioner in Medford, Massachusetts, attended to her daughter during childbirth; the daughter bled to death and the baby did not survive. The defense argued that they might have died even with medical attention, and Corner was acquitted. From then until the s around 50 parents and practitioners were prosecuted, and often acquitted, after adults and children died without medical care; charges ranged from neglect to second-degree murder.
There was also opposition to the AMA's effort to strengthen medical licensing laws. Vaccination was another battleground. A Christian Scientist in Wisconsin won a case in that allowed his son to attend public school despite not being vaccinated against smallpox.
Others were arrested in for avoiding vaccination during a smallpox epidemic in Georgia. In Eddy advised adherents to obey the law, "and then appeal to the gospel to save The controversy prompted Eddy to declare that "until public thought becomes better acquainted with Christian Science, the Christian Scientists shall decline to doctor infectious or contagious diseases," and from that time the church required Christian Scientists to report contagious diseases to health boards.
In Eddy became close to another of her students, Ebenezer Johnson Foster, a homeopath and graduate of the Hahnemann Medical College. He was 41 and she was 67, but apparently in need of affection and loyalty she adopted him legally in November that year, and he changed his name to Ebenezer Johnson Foster Eddy. A year later, in October , Eddy closed the Massachusetts Metaphysical College; according to Bates and Dittemore, the state attorney was investigating colleges that were fraudulently graduating medical students.
She told the church they could have the land for their building on condition they formally dissolve the church; this was apparently intended to quash internal rebellions that had been bothering her. Wilson writes that the dissolutions allowed her to create a central church controlled by a five-person board of directors that answered only to her, which gave the church a stability that helped it survive her death.
The cornerstone of The First Church of Christ, Scientist , containing the Bible, Eddy's writings and a list of directors and financial contributors, was laid in May in the Back Bay area of Boston. The archway into the room was made of Italian marble, and the word Mother was engraved on the floor. Within two years the Boston membership had exceeded the original church's capacity.
Christian Science went on to become the fastest-growing American religion in the early 20th century. The federal religious census recorded 85, Christian Scientists in ; 30 years later it was , Mark Twain was a prominent contemporaneous critic of Eddy's. His first article about Christian Science was published in Cosmopolitan in October Twain described Eddy as "[g]rasping, sordid, penurious, famishing for everything she sees—money, power, glory—vain, untruthful, jealous, despotic, arrogant, insolent, pitiless where thinkers and hypnotists are concerned, illiterate, shallow, incapable of reasoning outside of commercial lines, immeasurably selfish.
Science and Health he called "strange and frantic and incomprehensible and uninterpretable," and argued that Eddy had not written it herself. The first history of Christian Science appeared in McClure's magazine in 14 installments from January to June , preceded by an editorial in December The essence of the articles, which included court documents and affidavits from Eddy's associates, was that Eddy's chief concern was money, and that she had derived Christian Science from Quimby.
Eddy and the History of Christian Science It was republished in by Baker Book House when its copyright expired, and again in by the University of Nebraska Press. In March several of Eddy's relatives filed an unsuccessful lawsuit, the "Next Friends suit," against members of Eddy's household, alleging that she was unable to manage her own affairs.
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Calvin Frye , her long-time personal assistant, was a particular target of the allegations. Mary Baker G. Eddy Dying; Footman and Dummy Control Her," said that Eddy was housebound and dying of cancer, that her staff had taken control of her fortune, and that another woman was impersonating her in public.
The newspaper persuaded Eddy's family or "next friends" to file a lawsuit. Several joined the action, including Eddy's biological son, George Glover, and adoptive son, Ebenezer J. Foster Eddy. It appeared in November that year, with the motto "To injure no man, but to bless all mankind," and went on to win seven Pulitzer Prizes between and Eddy died two years later, on the evening of Saturday, December 3, , aged The Mother Church announced at the end of the Sunday morning service that Eddy had "passed from our sight.
Eddy's] return in this world. A census at the height of the religion's popularity in counted c. The building was sold again in to be converted into condominiums. There were an estimated , Scientists in the United States in per million , according to Rodney Stark. In there were 11, practitioners in the United States, against in 1, worldwide. Stark attributes the rise of the movement in the lateth and earlyth centuries to several factors, chiefly that medical practice was in its infancy.
Because patients often fared better without medical treatment, Christian Science prayer was favorable in comparison. Members were expected not to drink or smoke, but could otherwise do as they pleased, and several exceptions to the avoidance of medicine were permitted. In , 72 percent of Christian Scientists in the United States were female, against 49 percent of the population. As Christian Scientists they could become practitioners after just 12 lessons. Of the 14 practitioners listed in the first edition of the Christian Science Journal , 12 were women.
The increased efficacy of medicine around World War II heralded the religion's decline. Stark charts the use of sulfonamide to kill bacteria, the availability of penicillin in the s and breakthroughs in immunology. In 30 percent of Christian Scientists were over Eddy was in her sixties by the time the movement began to spread. Stark writes that the "characteristics of the earliest members of a movement will tend to be reproduced in subsequent converts. In a study cited by Stark, of 80 people raised within Christian Science just 26 33 percent became Scientists themselves.
Christian Scientists avoid almost all medical treatment, relying instead on Christian Science prayer. She concludes, Fraser writes, by asserting that disease is a lie, that this is the word of God and that it has the power to heal. Christian Science practitioners are certified by the Church of Christ, Scientist, to charge a fee for Christian Science prayer. They offer no medical services; the nurses are Christian Scientists who have completed a course of religious study and training in basic skills, such as feeding and bathing.
The Christian Science Journal and Christian Science Sentinel publish anecdotal healing "testimonials," which must be accompanied by statements from three verifiers: "people who know [the testifier] well and have either witnessed the healing or can vouch for [the testifier's] integrity in sharing it. Battin writes that the seriousness with which these are treated by Christian Scientists ignores factors such as false positives caused by self-limiting conditions.
Because no negative accounts are published, the testimonials strengthen people's tendency to rely on anecdotes. The church published 53, such accounts between and April A church study, published in , examined 10, of them, 2, of which the church said involved conditions that had been medically diagnosed, and of which were "medically confirmed by follow-up examinations. The main criticism Christian Scientists face is that their children are denied equal protection under the law.
In the United States the Christian Science church has persuaded federal and local government to create and maintain religious-exemption statutes, using the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Added in , this stated that parents who did not provide medical treatment for a child for religious reasons would not be considered negligent. Largely as a result of lobbying by Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty , the government eliminated the HEW regulation in ,  but 39 states, Guam , and the District of Columbia still had religious exemptions in their civil codes on child abuse and neglect as of February In over 50 cases between and the early s, prosecutors charged Christian Scientists after adults and children died of treatable illnesses without medical care.
Her mother was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to five years' probation. Twitchell in , which saw the parents of two-year-old Robyn Twitchell convicted of involuntary manslaughter after he died of peritonitis. The first time the church was held liable overturned on appeal was in after year-old Ian Lundman died of hyperglycaemia in Minnesota in When a church closes, the others in that city are not renamed.
Founded in April , the Church of Christ, Scientist is led by a president and five-person board of directors. There is a public-relations department, known as the Committee on Publication, with representatives around the world; this was set up by Eddy in to protect her own and the church's reputation. Eddy's Manual of The Mother Church first published lists the church's by-laws. Prohibitions include engaging in mental malpractice; visiting a store that sells "obnoxious" books; joining other churches; publishing articles that are uncharitable toward religion, medicine, the courts or the law; and publishing the number of church members.
Eddy's drive when she goes out, continually stroll by her house, or make a summer resort near her for such a purpose. The Church of Christ, Scientist has no clergy, sermons or rituals, and performs no baptisms, marriages or burials. Its main religious texts are the Bible and Science and Health. Each church has two Readers , who read aloud from those texts during services, and select hymns from the Christian Science Hymnal.
There are Sunday morning and Wednesday evening services. Members offer testimonials during the Wednesday meetings about any success they attribute to Christian Science, including recovery from ill health. Webster and Admiral Stansfield M. Turner ; Richard Nixon 's chief of staff H. The Christian Science Publishing Society publishes several periodicals, including the Christian Science Monitor , winner of seven Pulitzer Prizes between and This had a daily circulation in of ,, which by had contracted to 52, In it moved to a largely online presence with a weekly print run.
The church faced internal dissent in over its decision to publish The Destiny of The Mother Church. Written and privately printed in by Bliss Knapp , former president of the Mother Church, the book suggested that Eddy was the Woman of the Apocalypse of the New Testament. The church published and made the book available in Christian Science reading rooms. One senior employee was fired for failing to support the church's decision, and 18 of the 21 editorial staff of the religious journals resigned.
In the end the other parties disputed that making the book available in Reading Rooms constituted authorization, and the bequest was split three ways. Roy M. Anker, " Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science denominationally known as the Church of Christ, Scientist , the most prominent, successful, controversial, and distinctive of all the groups whose inspiration scholars trace to the healing and intellectual influence of Quimby. Like Joseph Smith, Mary Baker Eddy added too much new religious culture for her movement to qualify fully as a member of the Christian family—as all the leading clerics of the time repeatedly and vociferously pointed out.
These continuities allowed converts from a Christian background to preserve a great deal of cultural capital. But, as I was only a scribe echoing the harmonies of heaven in divine metaphysics, I cannot be super-modest in my estimate of the Christian Science textbook. Ernest Sutherland Bates and John V.
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Dittemore , Eddy was not able to attend Sanbornton Tilton Academy when the family moved there in , but was required instead to start at the district school on the lower floor of the same building. She started at the beginning with the youngest girls, but withdrew after a month because of poor health. Thereafter she received private tuition from the Reverend Enoch Corser. She entered Sanbornton Academy in Gillian Gill , "In November , at age twenty-one, she completed her formal schooling, having done three full semesters at the Sanbornton Academy under Dyer Sanborn.
Stewart W. Holmes wrote in that this passage was probably the source of Eddy's "scientific statement of being" in the "Recapitulation" chapter of Science and Health p. All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth; matter is mortal error. Spirit is the real and eternal; matter is the unreal and temporal. Spirit is God, and man is His image and likeness.
Therefore man is not material; he is spiritual. Patterson during this illness from the day of the accident, February 1, , to my final visit on February 13th, and when I left her on the 13th day of February, she seemed to have recovered from the disturbance caused by the accident and to be, practically, in her normal condition.
I did not at any time declare, or believe, that there was no hope for Mrs. Patterson's recovery, or that she was in a critical condition, and did not at any time say, or believe, that she had but three or any other limited number of days to live. Patterson did not suggest, or say, or pretend, or in any way whatever intimate, that on the third, or any other day, of her said illness, she had miraculously recovered or been healed, or that, discovering or perceiving the truth of the power employed by Christ to heal the sick, she had, by it, been restored to health.
Eddy, March 7, "We had laid the foundations of mental healing before we ever saw Dr. Quimby; were an homeopathist without a diploma. We made our first experiments in mental healing about , when we were convinced that mind had a science, which, if understood, would heal all disease.
According to Bates and Dittemore , an essay, "Taking Offense," was printed as one of Eddy's when it had first been published anonymously by an obscure newspaper. Eddy was also accused, by Walter M. Haushalter in his Mrs. Eddy Purloins from Hegel , Boston: A. Beauchamp, , of having copied material from "The Metaphysical Religion of Hegel" , an essay by Francis Lieber. Eddy, "Mr. Quimby's son has stated Quimby originated the system of healing which I claim to be mine. Eddy, "In I copyrighted the first publication on spiritual, scientific Mind-healing, entitled The Science of Man.
This little book is converted into the chapter on Recapitulation in Science and Health. It was so new—the basis it laid down for physical and moral health was so hopelessly original—that I did not venture upon its publication until later This will account for certain published and unpublished manuscripts extant, which the evil-minded would insinuate did not originate with me.
In students at a Christian Science school in Greenwich, Connecticut, contracted polio and four were left partially paralyzed. In a nine-year-old girl died of diphtheria after attending a Christian Science camp in Colorado. Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church , p. Mary M. Crowell Company, , p. Simmons , p. Crowell Company, , pp. Eddy, Science and Health , , first edition. Also see E. That she wrote it as M. For "malicious malpractice", see Gill , p. Also see Wilson , p.
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Dresser's reply, February 23, ; Eddy's reply, March 7, , in Dresser , p. Also see Horatio Dresser ed. There was also an article, George A. For more on the manuscripts, S. Bancroft, Mrs. He had earlier written about mental healing in "Mental Telepathy," Harper's , December Also see Fraser Atlantic Also see T. Novotny, et al. State v. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements. Not to be confused with List of Christian thinkers in science or Scientology. General information. Alternative medicine Alternative veterinary medicine Quackery Health fraud History of alternative medicine Rise of modern medicine Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Terminology of alternative medicine.
Fringe medicine and science. Conspiracy theories. Allopathic medicine Alternative medical systems Mind—body intervention Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Energy therapy.
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Traditional medicine. Adrenal fatigue Aerotoxic syndrome Autistic enterocolitis Candida hypersensitivity Electromagnetic hypersensitivity Heavy legs Leaky gut syndrome Wilson's temperature syndrome Wind turbine syndrome. See also: Great Awakening. Churches, church personnel. Institutions, groups. Commonwealth v. Twitchell Salem witchcraft trial Writers, critics, books. Related topics.
Brooks H. Related ideas. They believe it is a Christianity that is in the New Testament; that it has always been there, that in the drift of ages it was lost through disuse and neglect, and that this benefactor has found it and given it back to men, turning the night of life into day, its terrors into myths, its lamentations into songs of emancipation and rejoicing. Further information: Mary Baker Eddy.
Lulu Blackman student of Eddy's , . Further information: Phineas Parkhurst Quimby.
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The basis of Dr. Quimby's theory is that there is no intelligence, no power or action in matter of itself, that the spiritual world to which our eyes are closed by ignorance or unbelief is the real world, that in it lie all the causes for every effect visible in the natural world, and that if this spiritual life can be revealed to us, in other words if we can understand ourselves, we shall then have our happiness or misery in our own hands I have demonstrated on myself in an injury occasioned by a fall, that it [her healing method] did for me what surgeons could not do.
Cushing of this city pronounced my injury incurable and that I could not survive three days because of it, when on the third day I rose from my bed and to the utter confusion of all I commenced my usual avocations and notwithstanding displacements, etc. Further information: Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. The author has attenuated Natrum muriaticum common table-salt until there was not a single saline property left This discovery leads to more light. From it may be learned that either human faith or the divine Mind is the healer and that there is no efficacy in a drug.
Further information: Animal magnetism. Further information: Salem witchcraft trial Further information: Massachusetts Metaphysical College. She had formerly had the same symptoms of arsenical poison herself, and it was some time before she discovered it to be the mesmeric work of an enemy.
Soon after her marriage her husband began to manifest the same symptoms and had since shown them from time to time; but was, with her help, always able to overcome them. A few weeks ago she observed that he did not look well, and when questioned he said that he was unable to get the idea of this arsenical poison out of his mind. He had been steadily growing worse ever since, but still had hoped to overcome the trouble until the last.
After the death the body had turned black. Never advertised, and practiced by only one individual who healed me, Dr. Quimby of Portland, ME. I discovered the art in a moment's time , and he acknowledged it to me; he died shortly after and since then, eight years, I have been founding and demonstrating the science. Mother Church, Boston. Further information: Christian Science book. Eddy and the History of Christian Science.
Further information: Christian Science Monitor. Further information: List of former Christian Science churches, societies and buildings. Further information: Christian Science practitioner. That means that there is no person to be healed, no material body, no patient, no matter, no illness, no one to heal, no substance, no person, no thing and no place that needs to be influenced. This is what the practitioner must first be clear about. Further information: Freedom of religion in the United States. Further information: Commonwealth v. Further information: Reader Christian Science Church. Main article: List of Christian Scientists religious denomination.
New Thought writers shared the idea that God is Mind. Journal of Contemporary Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press. Church of Christ, Scientist , christianscience. Rogers, Alan. Swan, Rita. Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. Eddy" , McClure's magazine, December — June Powell, Lyman Pierson. Putnam's Sons, . Peabody, Frederick William. Wilbur, Sybil. Meehan, Michael. Eddy and Next Friends. Bancroft, Samuel P. Ellis Co, Dickey, Adam E. Carter, Dakin, Edwin Franden. Fisher, H. Smith, Springer, Fleta Campbell. Knopf, Zweig, Stefan.
Tomlinson, Irving C. Kennedy, Hugh A. Beasley, Norman. Peel, Robert. Gardner, Martin. Thomas, Robert David. Knee, Stuart E. Nenneman, Richard A. Gill, Gillian. Gottschalk, Stephen. Fraser, Caroline. Greenhouse, Lucy. Kramer, Linda S. Simmons, Thomas. Wilson, Barbara. Christian Science. Christian Science practitioner Christian Science Reader.
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Idea Plato's Theory of Ideas Anti-realism consciousness-only rationalism mentalism panpsychism phenomenalism idealistic pluralism Idealistic Studies. Spiritual mind treatment. Ernest Holmes. The Science of Mind Science of Mind. Denominations List.
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